UK Column News - 8th August 2018

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Aug 8 14:24 [raw]

Active measures (Russian: активные мероприятия) is a Soviet term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB) to influence the course of world events, in addition to collecting intelligence and producing "politically correct" assessment of it. Active measures ranged "from media manipulations to special actions involving various degrees of violence". They were used both abroad and domestically. They included disinformation, propaganda, counterfeiting official documents, assassinations, and political repression, such as penetration into churches, and persecution of political dissidents. Retired KGB Maj. Gen. Oleg Kalugin described active measures as "the heart and soul of Soviet intelligence": "Not intelligence collection, but subversion: active measures to weaken the West, to drive wedges in the Western community alliances of all sorts, particularly NATO, to sow discord among allies, to weaken the United States in the eyes of the people of Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and thus to prepare ground in case the war really occurs." Against the United States A few claims of active measures against the United States were described in the Mitrokhin Archive: Discrediting of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), using historian Philip Agee (codenamed PONT). Attempts to discredit Martin Luther King, Jr. by placing publications portraying him as an "Uncle Tom" who was secretly receiving government subsidies Stirring up racial tensions in the United States by mailing bogus letters from the Ku Klux Klan, placing an explosive package in "the Negro section of New York" (operation PANDORA), and spreading conspiracy theories that Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination had been planned by the US government Starting rumors that fluoridated drinking water was in fact a plot by the US government to effect population control Starting rumors that the moon landing was a hoax and the money ostensibly used by NASA was in actuality used by the CIA Use of sympathetic elements in the press to libel the strategic defense initiative as an impractical "star wars" scheme Fabrication of the story that AIDS virus was manufactured by US scientists at Fort Detrick; the story was spread by Russian-born biologist Jakob Segal. According to Stanislav Lunev, GRU alone spent more than $1 billion for the peace movements against the Vietnam War, which was a "hugely successful campaign and well worth the cost". Lunev claimed that "the GRU and the KGB helped to fund just about every antiwar movement and organization in America and abroad". The World Peace Council was established on the orders of the Communist Party of the USSR in the late 1940s and for over forty years carried out campaigns against western, mainly American, military action. Many organisations controlled or influenced by Communists affiliated themselves with it. According to Oleg Kalugin, ... the Soviet intelligence [was] really unparalleled. ... The [KGB] programs -- which would run all sorts of congresses, peace congresses, youth congresses, festivals, women's movements, trade union movements, campaigns against U.S. missiles in Europe, campaigns against neutron weapons, allegations that AIDS ... was invented by the CIA ... all sorts of forgeries and faked material -- [were] targeted at politicians, the academic community, at [the] public at large. ... It has been widely claimed that the Soviet Union organised and financed western peace movements; for example, ex-KGB agent Sergei Tretyakov claimed that in the early 1980s the KGB wanted to prevent the United States from deploying nuclear missiles and that they used the Soviet Peace Committee to organize and finance peace demonstrations in western Europe. (Western intelligence agencies, however, have found no evidence of this.) Tretyakov made a further uncorroborated claim that "The KGB was responsible for creating the entire nuclear winter story to stop the Pershing II missiles," and that they fed misinformation to western peace groups and thereby influenced a key scientific paper on the topic by western scientists. Other cases of Soviet disinformation during the 1980s The Soviets forged a memorandum from the President of the United States to the Secretaries of State and Defense and the director of the CIA, that ordered the establishment of a U.S. military force called the “Permanent Peace Forces” that would be used to intervene in Latin America. This forgery inflamed nationalist and anti-American sentiment in Latin America. The Soviets circulated false allegations that the United States was importing Latin American children only to use their body parts for organ transplants. In 1982, the Soviets forged a transcript of a speech made by United Nations Ambassador Jeanne Kirkpatrick that called for the balkanization of India and planted it in the Indian press. The Soviets forged an NSC Policy Paper which outlines global U.S. political and military foreign policy between 1985 and 1988. A central theme in the paper was the purported U.S. goal of "strategic dominion" over the Soviet Union. The forgery included underlying goals such as the integration of Swiss, Austrian, and Swedish national resources into NATO and the "neutralization" of discussions concerning nuclear-free zones. The Soviets forged a letter from the USIA to Senator Durenberger in 1986 which outlines a purported USIA plan to disseminate rumors about events in the Soviet Union in the wake of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant such as exaggerated reports of the number of victims. Religious organizations that were used as front organizations: the Anti-Zionist Committee, the Christian Peace Conference, the World Council of Churches, the Asian Buddhist Council for Peace. The World Peace Council was the largest Soviet front organization set up after World War II. Legacy Russia's support for far-right movements in the West has been compared to the Soviet Union's active measures in that it aims to "disrupt and discredit Western democracies". https://web.archive.org/web/20070614052728/http://cicentre.com:80/disinformation.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070104092905/http://usinfo.state.gov:80/media/misinformation.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trolls_from_Olgino https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberwarfare_by_Russia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_propaganda https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fake_news_website#Russia http://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE198.html http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE198/RAND_PE198.pdf

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